# Observability

This page will describe how to configure different observability tools to work with Kuma.

# Demo setup

kumactl ships with a builtin observability stack which consists of:

First, remember to configure Kuma appropriately for the tools in the observability stack:

On Kubernetes, the stack can be installed with:

kumactl install observability | kubectl apply -f -
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This will create a namespace mesh-observability with prometheus, jaeger, loki and grafana installed and setup to work with Kuma.

This setup is meant to be used for trying out Kuma. It is in no way fit for use in production. For production setups we recommend referring to each project's website or to use a hosted solution like Grafana cloud or Datadog.

# Control plane metrics

Control plane metrics are exposed on port :5680 and available under the standard path /metrics.

# Configuring Prometheus

The Kuma community has contributed a builtin service discovery to Prometheus, it is documented in the Prometheus docs (opens new window). This service discovery will connect to the control plane and retrieve all data planes with enabled metrics which Prometheus will scrape and retrieve metrics according to your traffic metrics setup.

There are 2 ways you can run prometheus:

  1. Inside the mesh (default for kumactl install observability). In this case you can use mTLS to retrieve the metrics. This provides high security but will require one prometheus per mesh and might not be accessible if your mesh becomes unavailable. It will also require one Prometheus deployment per Kuma mesh.
  2. Outside the mesh. In this case you'll need to specify skipMTLS: true in the traffic metrics configuration. This is less secured but will ensure Prometheus is as available as possible. It is also easier to add to an existing setup with services in and outside the mesh.

In production, we recommend the second option as it provides better visibility when things go wrong, and it's usually acceptable for metrics to be less secure.

# Using an already existing prometheus setup

In Prometheus version 2.29 and later, you can add Kuma metrics to your prometheus.yml:

scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'kuma-dataplanes'
      scrape_interval: "5s"
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels:
        - __meta_kuma_mesh
        regex: "(.*)"
        target_label: mesh
      - source_labels:
        - __meta_kuma_dataplane
        regex: "(.*)"
        target_label: dataplane
      - source_labels:
        - __meta_kuma_service
        regex: "(.*)"
        target_label: service
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kuma_label_(.+)
      kuma_sd_configs:
      - server: "http://kuma-control-plane.kuma-system.svc:5676" # replace with the url of your control plane
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For more information, see the Prometheus documentation (opens new window).

For earlier versions of Prometheus, Kuma provides the kuma-prometheus-sd tool, which runs alongside your Prometheus instance. This tool fetches a list of current data plane proxies from the Kuma control plane and saves the list in Prometheus-compatible format to a file on disk. Prometheus watches for changes to the file and updates its scraping configuration accordingly.

  1. Run kuma-prometheus-sd, for example:

    kuma-prometheus-sd run \
      --cp-address=grpcs://kuma-control-plane.internal:5676 \
      --output-file=/var/run/kuma-prometheus-sd/kuma.file_sd.json
    
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  2. Configure Prometheus to read from the file you just saved. For example, add the following snippet to prometheus.yml:

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'kuma-dataplanes'
      scrape_interval: 15s
      file_sd_configs:
      - files:
        - /var/run/kuma-prometheus-sd/kuma.file_sd.json
    
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If you have traffic metrics enabled for your mesh, check the Targets page in the Prometheus dashboard. You should see a list of data plane proxies from your mesh. For example:

A screenshot of Targets page on Prometheus UI

# Configuring Grafana

# Visualizing traces

To visualise your traces you need to have Grafana up and running.

kumactl install observability sets this up out of the box.

With Grafana installed you can configure a new datasource with url:http://jaeger-query.mesh-observability/ (or whatever url jaeger can be queried at). Grafana will then be able to retrieve the traces from Jaeger.

Jaeger Grafana configuration

You can then add a TrafficTrace policy to your mesh to start emitting traces. At this point you can visualize your traces in Grafana by choosing the jaeger datasource in the explore section (opens new window).

# Visualizing logs

To visualise your containers' logs and your access logs you need to have a Grafana up and running.

kumactl install observability sets this up out of the box.

Loki Grafana configuration

You can then add a TrafficLog policy to your mesh to start emitting access logs. Loki will pick up logs that are sent to stdout. To send logs to stdout you can configure the logging backend as shown below:

    At this point you can visualize your containers' logs and your access logs in Grafana by choosing the loki datasource in the explore section (opens new window).

    For example, running: {container="kuma-sidecar"} |= "GET" will show all GET requests on your cluster. To learn more about the search syntax check the Loki docs (opens new window).

    Nice to have

    Having your Logs and Traces in the same visualisation tool can come really handy. By adding the traceId in your app logs you can visualize your logs and the related Jaeger traces. To learn more about it go read this article (opens new window).

    # Grafana extensions

    The Kuma community has built a datasource and a set of dashboards to provide great interactions between Kuma and Grafana.

    # Datasource and service map

    The Grafana Datasource is a datasource specifically built to relate information from the control plane with Prometheus metrics.

    Current features include:

    To use the plugin you'll need to add the binary to your Grafana instance by following the installation instructions (opens new window).

    To make things simpler the datasource is installed and configured when using kumactl install observability.

    # Dashboards

    Kuma ships with default dashboards that are available to import from the Grafana Labs repository (opens new window).

    # Kuma Dataplane

    This dashboard lets you investigate the status of a single dataplane in the mesh.

    Kuma Dataplane dashboard Kuma Dataplane dashboard Kuma Dataplane dashboard Kuma Dataplane dashboard
    # Kuma Mesh

    This dashboard lets you investigate the aggregated statistics of a single mesh. It provides a topology view of your service traffic dependencies (Service Map) and includes information such as number of requests and error rates.

    Kuma Mesh dashboard
    # Kuma Service to Service

    This dashboard lets you investigate aggregated statistics from dataplanes of specified source services to dataplanes of specified destination service.

    Kuma Service to Service dashboard Kuma Service to Service HTTP
    # Kuma CP

    This dashboard lets you investigate control plane statistics.

    Kuma CP dashboard Kuma CP dashboard Kuma CP dashboard
    # Kuma Service

    This dashboard lets you investigate aggregated statistics for each service.

    Kuma Service dashboard
    # Kuma MeshGateway

    This dashboard lets you investigate aggregated statistics for each builtin gateway.

    Kuma Gateway dashboard

    # Configuring Datadog

    The recommended way to use Datadog is with its agent (opens new window).

      # Metrics

      Kuma exposes metrics with traffic metrics in Prometheus format.

      You can add annotations to your pods to enable the Datadog agent to scrape metrics.

        # Tracing

        Checkout the

        1. Set up the Datadog (opens new window) agent.
        2. Set up APM (opens new window).

          Once the agent is configured to ingest traces you'll need to configure a TrafficTrace.

          # Logs

          The best way to have Kuma and Datadog work together is with TCP ingest (opens new window).

          Once your agent is configured with TCP ingest you can configure a TrafficLog for data plane proxies to send logs.

          # Observability in multi-zone

          Kuma is multi-zone at heart. We explain here how to architect your telemetry stack to accommodate multi-zone.

          # Prometheus

          When Kuma is used in multi-zone the recommended approach is to use 1 Prometheus instance in each zone and to send the metrics of each zone to a global Prometheus instance.

          Prometheus offers different ways to do this:

          # Jaeger, Loki, Datadog and others

          Most telemetry components don't have a hierarchical setup like Prometheus. If you want to have a central view of everything you can set up the system in global and have each zone send their data to it. Because zone is present in data plane tags you shouldn't be worried about metrics, logs and traces overlapping between zones.

          Last Updated: 8/23/2022, 4:31:24 PM