# External Service

This policy allows services running inside the mesh to consume services that are not part of the mesh. The ExternalService resource allows you to declare specific external resources by name within the mesh, instead of implementing the default passthrough mode. Passthrough mode allows access to any non-mesh host by specifying its domain name or IP address, without the ability to apply any traffic policies. The ExternalService resource enables the same observability, security, and traffic manipulation for external traffic as for services entirely inside the mesh

When you enable this policy, you should also disable passthrough mode for the mesh and enable the data plane proxy builtin DNS name resolution.

# Usage

A simple HTTPS external service can be defined:

    # Accessing the External Service

    Consuming the defined service from within the mesh for both Kubernetes and Universal deployments (assuming transparent proxy) can be done:

    • With the .mesh naming of the service curl httpbin.mesh. With this approach, specify port 80.
    • With the real name and port, in this case curl httpbin.org:443. This approach works only with the data plane proxy builtin DNS name resolution.

    Although the external service is HTTPS, it's consumed as plain HTTP. This is possible because when networking.tls.enabled is set to true then Envoy is responsible for originating and verifying TLS.

    To consume the service using HTTPS, set the service protocol to kuma.io/protocol: tcp and networking.tls.enabled=false. This way application itself is responsible for originating and verifying TLS and Envoy is just passing the connection to a proper destination.

    The first approach has an advantage that we can apply HTTP based policies, because Envoy is aware of HTTP protocol and can apply request modifications before the request is encrypted. Additionally, we can modify TLS certificates without restarting applications.

    # Available policy fields

    • tags the external service can include an arbitrary number of tags, where kuma.io/service is mandatory. The special kuma.io/protocol tag is also taken into account and supports the standard Kuma protocol values. It designates the specific protocol for the service.
    • networking describes the networking configuration of the external service
      • address is the address where the external service can be reached.
      • tls is the section to configure the TLS originator when consuming the external service
        • enabled turns on and off the TLS origination.
        • allowRenegotiation turns on and off TLS renegotiation. It's not recommended enabling this for security reasons (opens new window). However, some servers require this setting to fetch client certificate after TLS handshake. TLS renegotiation is not available in TLS v1.3.
        • caCert the CA certificate for the external service TLS verification
        • clientCert the client certificate for mTLS
        • clientKey the client key for mTLS

    As with other services, avoid duplicating service names under kuma.io/service with already existing ones. A good practice is to derive the tag value from the domain name or IP of the actual external service.

    Last Updated: 7/16/2021, 5:45:24 PM